- Organelles are structures that carry out different functions within a cell.
- Organelles in a cell are analogous to the organs in a body.
- Organelles are suspended in a water-based fluid called cytosol.
- The nucleus stores the genetic information (chromosomes) of eukaryotic cells.
- The nucleus is roughly spherical and is surrounded by two membranes.
- The nucleus is the ‘brain’ of a cell.
- Mitochondria are the power houses of a cell.
- Mitochondria convert biomolecules (i.e. fats and sugars) into energy.
- By-products of energy production in mitochondria may damage DNA and cause mutations.
- Ribosomes are made up of two large complexes comprised of RNA and protein.
- Ribosomes are located in the cytosol. Their function is to read RNA and produce proteins in a process known astranslation.
- The cytoskeleton is an intricate network of proteins that criss-cross the cytoplasm of a cell.
- Actin and tubulin are the proteins used to build main fibers of the cytoskeleton (microfilaments and microtubules, respectively).
- The cytoskeleton serves several key functions:
- Provides structure to cells and a place to anchor organelles
- Cell motility
- Control of cell division during mitosis
- Changes in the cytoskeleton that allow increased movement are observed in cancer cells.
- Many anti-cancer drugs work by interfering with the activity of cytoskeletal proteins.